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Multifactorial diseases are related to 15 different organ systems. You will find out your personal predisposition to a number of diseases that may develop during your lifetime.
Click on any organ to explore associated diseases
Mentality is the highest manifestation of the nervous system. This is a subjective reflection of objective reality in a form of ideal images which regulates interaction of a person and an environment. Mental activities include: cognitive activity (sensation, perception, attention, memory, associative activities - thinking, speech, imagination, talents and intelligence); emotional and volitional activities; motivation, needs and desires; different levels of consciousness. The most important characteristic of the human mind is its consistency, integrity and indivisibility. Many mental illnesses accompanied by a duality of mental processes, have got an extremely negative impact on patient's social adaptation. Nervous system (systema nervosum) is morphologically and functionally integrated system that provides individual adaptation of the organism to the environment and regulates functions of separate organs and tissues. Main functional unit of the nervous system is a nerve cell (neuron). Neuron can be sensory, motor, associative or secretory. Neuronal projections (dendrite and axon) conduct nerve impulses in one direction, connecting neuron body with tissues and other nerve cells. Tissue which ensures vital activity of neurons is called glia. Morphologically a nervous system is divided into central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral systems. Functionally there are somatic (consciousness) and autonomous (vegetative) nervous systems.
A skin is an outer covering of the body. In addition to the protective function it is involved in thermoregulation, maintaining water and electrolyte balance, respiration (process of gas exchange between organism and environment), excretion of harmful substances (sweat). Besides, there is a significant amount of sensory receptors in skin, which allow to perceive the temperature, pressure, pain. The surface area of the skin of an adult person may be over than 2 m2.
A human eye is a compound system for the perception of light waves. The optical system (cornea, iris, pupil, anterior chamber, lens and vitreous body) jointly with extraocular muscles projects an image on retina, and retina with an optic nerve perceives and "encodes" the image, and passes the "code" to the central nervous system for further processing and usage.
Ear is one of the main sensory organs involved in the perception of sounds and equilibrium maintenance. The external ear is represented by pinna and ear canal. The mission of the external ear is to collect sound waves and direct them to a middle ear. On the border of external and middle ears there is an eardrum, it begins the process of sound perception. The middle ear is a complex system of small bones, which amplifies and transmits the sound wave to the nerve endings for sound recognition. Even more complex processes of perceiving head's movement in space take part in the inner ear. Due to the liquid movement between three small cavities our body detects the slightest change in head's position, and data analysis allows you to maintain balance and move in the right direction.
Respiratory system is a set of structures providing gas exchange between an inhaled air and blood. Human respiratory system consists of the breathing muscles (intercostal and diaphragm), the upper (nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx) and lower (larynx, trachea, bronchi) respiratory tracts, and lungs. In addition to respiratory function, respiratory system is involved in phonation, thermoregulation, maintaining water-salt balance and lipid metabolism, provides the elimination of toxins from the body, mechanical and immune defenses against environmental factors. Lung tissue is involved in the synthesis of hormones and maintenance of normal blood viscosity.
Cardiovascular system - a set of organs and tissues providing transportation and delivery of oxygen and nutrients, allocating cell waste products, as well as supporting cooperation between various remote organs and systems by transferring hormones and other biologically active substances. Cardio-vascular system comprises of: heart (performing pumping function), blood vessels (arteries and arterioles which carry blood from heart to tissues, veins and venues carrying blood from tissues to heart, capillaries providing exchange of substances between tissues and blood) and blood itself.
The digestive system is intended primarily for food processing and transportation of nutrients into the blood. The human digestive system consists of digestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines), salivary glands, exocrine glands (produce so-called digestive juices containing enzymes for final digestion of nutrients). In addition to the essential function of providing the body with nutrients digestive system solves other important problems: food disinfection (protection against infectious agents that enter the body with food), excretion of unnecessary and/or undigested substances, the maintenance of water-salt balance of the body. It is proven today that a number of hormones involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism are produced in the intestinal wall .
Urinary and genital systems are often combined in one - urogenital system - due to proximity and unity of several anatomical structures and, hence, the inevitable impact of one system's diseases one another. The urinary system is designed to remove waste products and excess water, to maintain electrolyte balance, blood formation activity and support normal blood pressure. The main function of the reproductive system is reproduction, transmission of stored genetic information to future generations.
Developmental defects (anomalies) are any deviations from the normal structure of the body, which appeared prenatally or in early childhood (less common). Most of malformations are caused genetically, that's why it is important to know for prospective parents if they have mutations that can cause malformation of the unborn child.
Musculoskeletal system is a collection of bones, muscles, binding elements (joints and ligaments), which form the basis of the human body, providing all motor functions, including the maintenance of posture, facial expressions, movement, etc. In addition to movement and support, it performs protective function (protects vital organs - brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs), hematopoiesis function and maintains electrolyte balance (exchange of calcium, phosphorus, iron and copper).
The immune system is a set of organs (thymus, spleen, lymph nodes), tissues (bone marrow, lymphoid tissue) and cells (macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes), which main function is to protect a body from external and internal biologically active agents (antigens - such as viruses, bacteria, allergens, etc.) in order to preserve a constant internal environment (homeostasis) of the body
Metabolism is a set of chemical reactions that provide vital functions of a cell, and its interaction with the environment. On a scale of a body metabolism is a complex process of interaction between cells, tissues and organs, carried out by the active compounds (signaling molecules) and receptors perceiving them. Biologically active substances can perform their functions right where they were produced or be transported over considerable distances by blood or other transportative systems of the body.
Malignant neoplasm is a disease characterized by the appearance of uncontrolled dividing cells that are capable of penetrating into adjacent tissues and metastasis (development of new lesions in distant organs and tissues). Uncontrolled cell division is caused by cell's genetic apparatus being damaged in the process of proliferation and differentiation.
Our body is working for us all day long, just like a well-oiled machine, replacing one cells by another, constantly creating new ones. This invisible to the naked eye process is a subject of a variety of individual predispositions and characteristics of each individual. For example, it’s well known, that cardio training is recommended for someone while it is strictly prohibited for another. In general, doctors tend to recommend exercises for everyone, do not take into account features of your health. Such approach is obviously not professional and won’t hurt you at best.
The study of DNA provides the comprehensive knowledge of the features of individual’s body. Understanding the predispositions to certain diseases helps to delay or even prevent them!
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